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The Changing Face of America 
National Geographic MagazinePamela Chen, Martin Schoeller, David Whitmore

The Changing Face of America 

National Geographic Magazine
Pamela Chen, Martin Schoeller, David Whitmore

Meet the rarest of rare King Penguin or you can say rare melanistic penguin. This King Penguin is photographed by Andrew Evans of National Geographic on the island of South Georgia near Antarctica.

Meet the rarest of rare King Penguin or you can say rare melanistic penguin. This King Penguin is photographed by Andrew Evans of National Geographic on the island of South Georgia near Antarctica.

A cave diver inspects the newly-discovered skull of Naia in a submerged cave on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico        (Photo - Daniel Riordan Araujo)
One of the oldest human skeletons in North America has been discovered by a team of international scientists in an underwater Yucatán Peninsula cave.
Named “Naia”, the teenager fell to her death in a large pit called Hoyo Nego, meaning “black hole” in Spanish.
Patricia Beddows, a cave-diving researcher from Northwestern University, said: ”The preservation of all the bones in this deep water-filled cave is amazing - the bones are beautifully laid out.”
"The girl’s skeleton is exceptionally complete because of the environment in which she died — she ended up in the right water and in a quiet place without any soil. Her pristine preservation enabled our team to extract enough DNA to determine her shared genetic code with modern Native Americans," she added.
The skeleton, which is now covered in water, is estimated to be between 12,000 and 13,000 years old, suggesting Naia lived in the late Pleistocene or last ice age.
Naia measured 4ft 10in tall and was delicately built. Her estimated age of death was 15 or 16 years old, based on the development of her teeth.
The near-complete human skeleton, which has an intact cranium and preserved DNA, was found lying 130ft below sea level near a variety of extinct animals, including an elephant-like creature and relative of the mastodon called a gomphothere. These remains helped scientists establish the age of the skeleton.

A cave diver inspects the newly-discovered skull of Naia in a submerged cave on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico        (Photo - Daniel Riordan Araujo)

One of the oldest human skeletons in North America has been discovered by a team of international scientists in an underwater Yucatán Peninsula cave.

Named “Naia”, the teenager fell to her death in a large pit called Hoyo Nego, meaning “black hole” in Spanish.

Patricia Beddows, a cave-diving researcher from Northwestern University, said: ”The preservation of all the bones in this deep water-filled cave is amazing - the bones are beautifully laid out.”

"The girl’s skeleton is exceptionally complete because of the environment in which she died — she ended up in the right water and in a quiet place without any soil. Her pristine preservation enabled our team to extract enough DNA to determine her shared genetic code with modern Native Americans," she added.

The skeleton, which is now covered in water, is estimated to be between 12,000 and 13,000 years old, suggesting Naia lived in the late Pleistocene or last ice age.

Naia measured 4ft 10in tall and was delicately built. Her estimated age of death was 15 or 16 years old, based on the development of her teeth.

The near-complete human skeleton, which has an intact cranium and preserved DNA, was found lying 130ft below sea level near a variety of extinct animals, including an elephant-like creature and relative of the mastodon called a gomphothere. These remains helped scientists establish the age of the skeleton.

tinselprincyne:

wildcat2030:

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors
 Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias 
Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

this some assassins creed shit

HH:  If I were the superstitious type, I would quote the bible here. Oh, what the heck. I shall anyway, but be sure it is not by way of saying I take it literally, just interesting that different explanations come out through history with people trying to explain their world with the knowledge they had then or have now.  It can all change again with further knowledge:

Exodus 34:6-7 (NIV) 
 Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation.”
I read the Telegraph article, fascinating.

tinselprincyne:

wildcat2030:

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors

Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias

Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

this some assassins creed shit

HH:  If I were the superstitious type, I would quote the bible here. Oh, what the heck. I shall anyway, but be sure it is not by way of saying I take it literally, just interesting that different explanations come out through history with people trying to explain their world with the knowledge they had then or have now.  It can all change again with further knowledge:

Exodus 34:6-7 (NIV)

 Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation.”

I read the Telegraph article, fascinating.

The Belgian Blue - 

If you never seen a Belgian Blue, it appearance may blow your mind. the Beligan Blue is a breed of cattle originally from belgium. The Belgian Blue has  sculpted, heavily muscled appearance. The reason of such Extreme muscle development is not the result of genetic modification but a mutation in one of the breed’s genes which products what is known as double-muscling.

appalachian-appreciation:

The Blue People of Kentucky
The Fugate family gained fame for their rare genetic disorder that caused their skin to appear blue. Their ancestral line began six generations earlier with a French orphan, Martin Fugate, who settled in Eastern Kentucky. Martin Fugate came to Troublesome Creek from France in 1820 and family folklore says he was blue. He married Elizabeth Smith, who just happened to carry the rare recessive gene. Of their seven children, four were reported to be blue. There were no railroads and few roads outside the region, so the community remained small and isolated. The Fugates married other Fugate cousins and families who lived nearby, with names like Combs, Smith, Ritchie and Stacy.
The disorder that was passed down genetically was “methemoglobinemia” - a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin — a form of hemoglobin — is produced. Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to the body. In methemoglobinemia, the hemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen and it also makes it difficult for unaffected hemoglobin to release oxygen effectively to body tissues. Patients’ lips are purple, the skin looks blue and the blood is “chocolate colored” because it is not oxygenated. Most people have less than 1% methemoglobin in their blood, but this condition causes families like the Fugates to have anywhere up to 20% without having other serious health issues. 
Nothing like the Blue Fugates of Kentucky to demonstrate how absolutely fascinating genetics can be!

HH:  I had to read up on the history of this.  Genetics is fascinating.
"The bluest of the bunch was Luna, and she lived a healthy life, bearing 13 children before she died at the age of 84." (from first link below)
http://gma.yahoo.com/fugates-kentucky-skin-bluer-lake-louise-200247843—abc-news.html
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~kyperry3/Blue_Fugates_Troublesome_Creek.html
Good reason for widening the gene pool.  Like the Navajo have always practiced, you do not marry within your own clan.  

appalachian-appreciation:

The Blue People of Kentucky

The Fugate family gained fame for their rare genetic disorder that caused their skin to appear blue. Their ancestral line began six generations earlier with a French orphan, Martin Fugate, who settled in Eastern Kentucky. Martin Fugate came to Troublesome Creek from France in 1820 and family folklore says he was blue. He married Elizabeth Smith, who just happened to carry the rare recessive gene. Of their seven children, four were reported to be blue. There were no railroads and few roads outside the region, so the community remained small and isolated. The Fugates married other Fugate cousins and families who lived nearby, with names like Combs, Smith, Ritchie and Stacy.

The disorder that was passed down genetically was “methemoglobinemia” - a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin — a form of hemoglobin — is produced. Hemoglobin is responsible for distributing oxygen to the body. In methemoglobinemia, the hemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen and it also makes it difficult for unaffected hemoglobin to release oxygen effectively to body tissues. Patients’ lips are purple, the skin looks blue and the blood is “chocolate colored” because it is not oxygenated. Most people have less than 1% methemoglobin in their blood, but this condition causes families like the Fugates to have anywhere up to 20% without having other serious health issues. 

Nothing like the Blue Fugates of Kentucky to demonstrate how absolutely fascinating genetics can be!

HH:  I had to read up on the history of this.  Genetics is fascinating.

"The bluest of the bunch was Luna, and she lived a healthy life, bearing 13 children before she died at the age of 84." (from first link below)

Good reason for widening the gene pool.  Like the Navajo have always practiced, you do not marry within your own clan.  

black and white cookie goats

black and white cookie goats

Signs Humans are still evolving - 
http://www.mentalfloss.com/article/30795/5-signs-humans-are-still-evolving
Originally, we all had brown eyes. But about 10,000 years ago, someone who lived near the Black Sea developed a genetic mutation that turned brown eyes blue. While the reason blue eyes have persisted remains a bit of a mystery, one theory is that they act as a sort of paternity test. “There is strong evolutionary pressure for a man not to invest his paternal resources in another man’s child,” says the lead author of a study on the development of our baby blues. Because it is virtually impossible for two blue-eyed mates to create a brown-eyed baby, our blue-eyed male ancestors may have sought out blue-eyed mates as a way of ensuring fidelity. This would partially explain why, in a recent study, blue-eyed men rated blue-eyed women as more attractive compared to brown-eyed women, whereas females and brown-eyed men expressed no preference.

Signs Humans are still evolving -

http://www.mentalfloss.com/article/30795/5-signs-humans-are-still-evolving

Originally, we all had brown eyes. But about 10,000 years ago, someone who lived near the Black Sea developed a genetic mutation that turned brown eyes blue. While the reason blue eyes have persisted remains a bit of a mystery, one theory is that they act as a sort of paternity test. “There is strong evolutionary pressure for a man not to invest his paternal resources in another man’s child,” says the lead author of a study on the development of our baby blues. Because it is virtually impossible for two blue-eyed mates to create a brown-eyed baby, our blue-eyed male ancestors may have sought out blue-eyed mates as a way of ensuring fidelity. This would partially explain why, in a recent study, blue-eyed men rated blue-eyed women as more attractive compared to brown-eyed women, whereas females and brown-eyed men expressed no preference.

Confused Baby Girl Meet Her Fathers Twin Brother For The First Time

HH:  My mother was an identical twin.  She and my aunt tried to fool us many times, but as we got older, we could always tell.

Albino Owl

Albino Owl

Studies show that at least half of the variation in intelligence quotient, or IQ, is inherited. Alex Nabaum

Studies show that at least half of the variation in intelligence quotient, or IQ, is inherited. Alex Nabaum

lascocks:

laughterbynight:

Dapple for sure (which is not exclusive to grey horses) and a sooty modifier. Possibly sooty buckskin. That seems to be the closest when I did a search. The intensity of the modifier varies so sometimes you barely see it and sometimes the horses look like they rolled in soot.

BEAUTIFUL BB
it looks like someone sprinkled salt in watercolor paint 

3175

lascocks:

laughterbynight:

Dapple for sure (which is not exclusive to grey horses) and a sooty modifier. Possibly sooty buckskin. That seems to be the closest when I did a search. The intensity of the modifier varies so sometimes you barely see it and sometimes the horses look like they rolled in soot.

BEAUTIFUL BB

it looks like someone sprinkled salt in watercolor paint 

3175

Visualizing Race, Identity, and Change  
http://proof.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/17/visualizing-change/
HH:  This is an excellent article and in our society, very timely.  America is the melting pot, but we still classify people by race, religion, ethnicity, gender and so on.  
Being bi-racial myself, I always struggle with that box on surveys - I generally check “other.”  Or the lesser desired choice of "prefer not to answer," until I see a suitable selection.
It’s a good read and an interesting dialogue for our times.

Visualizing Race, Identity, and Change  

http://proof.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/17/visualizing-change/

HH:  This is an excellent article and in our society, very timely.  America is the melting pot, but we still classify people by race, religion, ethnicity, gender and so on.  

Being bi-racial myself, I always struggle with that box on surveys - I generally check “other.”  Or the lesser desired choice of "prefer not to answer," until I see a suitable selection.

It’s a good read and an interesting dialogue for our times.

Tribe of Ghosts is an insightful and revealing project by photojournalist Jacquelyn Martin that presents portraits of mistreated and often abandoned albinos in Africa while simultaneously sharing their personal stories and revealing their unappreciated beauty. Spending three-and-a-half weeks in Tanzania, a nation known for having one of the highest counts of the genetic mutation, Martin focused her lens on people with albinism living at the Kabanga Protectorate Center—a protective retreat that some see as a boarding school of sorts.
Filled with many children, the center paints a picture of an unfortunate tale that many of them share. Due to the social discrimination and cultural legends about people with albinism, many of these people are forsaken and even attacked. Browsing through the series and reading Martin’s discoveries from each personal account reveals the horrors that these people, young and old, have endured in a society that rejects their genetic makeup and even hunts them down because of it. (Witch doctors seem to believe that their body parts can be used for magic potions.)
Some of the residents of Kabanga center were left there by their parents while others were sent by the government for their own protection. In some heart-wrenching stories, these people have even been attacked by groups led by their own relatives. While the situation remains dire, there is some hope with the younger generations who have shown interest in becoming teachers, lawyers, and politicians in an effort to aid and protect other people with albinism.

Tribe of Ghosts is an insightful and revealing project by photojournalist Jacquelyn Martin that presents portraits of mistreated and often abandoned albinos in Africa while simultaneously sharing their personal stories and revealing their unappreciated beauty. Spending three-and-a-half weeks in Tanzania, a nation known for having one of the highest counts of the genetic mutation, Martin focused her lens on people with albinism living at the Kabanga Protectorate Center—a protective retreat that some see as a boarding school of sorts.

Filled with many children, the center paints a picture of an unfortunate tale that many of them share. Due to the social discrimination and cultural legends about people with albinism, many of these people are forsaken and even attacked. Browsing through the series and reading Martin’s discoveries from each personal account reveals the horrors that these people, young and old, have endured in a society that rejects their genetic makeup and even hunts them down because of it. (Witch doctors seem to believe that their body parts can be used for magic potions.)

Some of the residents of Kabanga center were left there by their parents while others were sent by the government for their own protection. In some heart-wrenching stories, these people have even been attacked by groups led by their own relatives. While the situation remains dire, there is some hope with the younger generations who have shown interest in becoming teachers, lawyers, and politicians in an effort to aid and protect other people with albinism.